Proceedings of The Physiological Society
AstraZeneca (2010) Proc Physiol Soc 18, PC31
A Prospective Study of Cardiovascular Risk Markers in Type 2 Diabetic patients.
S. S. Kappala1, A. Iyengar1, S. M. Rajbhandari2, J. Singh1
1. School of Forensic and Investigative Sciences, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, Lancashire, United Kingdom. 2. Diabetes and Endocrinology, Lancashire Teaching Hospitals, Chorley, Lancashire, United Kingdom.
Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex metabolic disorder with major epidemiological impacts affecting over 200 million people worldwide. This number is expected to reach indefinite proportions by the year 2030 (Zimmet et al., 2001). Individuals with T2DM have an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). British Medical Association has reported that CVD accounts for up to 80% mortality associated with T2DM in the United Kingdom. Type 2 diabetics (T2DPs) carry an array of risk factors including dyslipidemia, hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance and elevated concentrations of various biomarkers in their circulation, which lead to an accelerated probability of CVD (Erdmann, 2005). Consequently, rates of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity are very high in T2DPs. Since the accelerated atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases in diabetes are likely to be multifactorial, there is an urgent need for consideration of different therapeutic approaches. The main aim of this study is to identify a number of risk factors and biochemical parameters, which serve as predisposition factors and govern susceptibility to CVD in T2DM and to evaluate their possible roles as cardiovascular risk markers among T2DPs patients comparing them with healthy age-matched controls. Various biochemical parameters including plasma glucose, insulin, lipid profile, urea, C - reactive protein (CRP), HbA1C were analysed. Initial observations indicate a highly significant (P<0.01) increase in the levels of glucose (Control 4.726±0.1897 (n=19), Diabetic 11.2357±1.337 (n=14)), Hba1c (Control 5.55±0.098 (n=18), Diabetic 8.277±0.407 (n=18)), urea (Control 4.204±0.275 (n=21), Diabetic 8.616±0.881 (n=18), C- reactive protein (Control 1.470±0.2313 (n=17), Diabetic 8.441±0.591 (n=17)) in T2DPs when compared with healthy age-matched controls. Data are presented as mean ± standard error of mean (SEM). Data were compared using student’s t-test and statistical significance was defined as P<0.01. These results clearly indicate that different biochemical markers may be used for the assessment of CVD risk in T2DM patients. Further studies following these preliminary findings are currently in development and are focussed on age-related changes that would probably predispose T2DPs to CVD in future. This study will assist in the development of potential clinical strategies for the impediment and management of CVD in a high risk population.
Where applicable, experiments conform with Society ethical requirements