Proceedings of The Physiological Society

Physiology 2016 (Dublin, Ireland) (2016) Proc Physiol Soc 37, PCA217

Poster Communications

Effect of Ocimum gratissimum leaf extract on intestinal glucose absorption in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats

S. T. Shittu1, S. A. Shittu1, W. A. Oyeyemi2

1. Physiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. 2. Physiology, Igbinedion University, Okada, Nigeria.

The hypoglycaemic effect of Ocimum Gratissimum (OG) is well documented and morphologic alterations in the intestinal mucosa due to diabetes mellitus is well known. This study investigates the effect of oral administration OG on in vitro intestinal glucose absorption in diabetic rats. Twenty-five male wistar rats (150-200 g) were randomly grouped into 5 as control, normal + OG, diab-Untreated, diab+OG, and diab+glibenclamide groups. Diabetes was induced by 100 mg/kg of alloxan monohydrate in the diab-Untreated and diab+OG groups followed by treatment with distilled water and 400 mg/kg OG, respectively; whereas control, normal+OG, and diab+glibenclamide groups were treated with distilled water, 400 mg/kg OG, and 5 mg/kg glibenclamide, respectively. Body weight and fasting blood glucose level were monitored weekly. After 28 days of treatments, under anaesthesia by sodium thiopental (50 mg/kg, i.p.), a midline laparatomy was carried out to obtain the small intestine for in vitro intestinal glucose uptake using the everted sac protocol. Histomorphometry of the ileum and jejunum was carried out to measure the villi height, width and crypt depth using standard methods. Data were compared using analysis of variance and Student's t-test. There was a progressive reduction in the fasting blood glucose of diabetic animals treated with the extract. While the weight of the diabetic untreated animals consistently decreased, the normal rats treated with OG showed an apparent increase in their weight throughout the experiment and the diabetic animals treated with OG showed an initial reduction in weight at the second week but the weight gain increased thereafter. The jejunal and ileal glucose uptake in all the diabetic rats were not significantly different from the control group while normal rats treated with OG showed a significant increase in jejunal intestinal glucose uptake (P<0.05). In spite of the no significant difference observed in the diabetic animals, histomorphometry analysis showed significant increases in the jejunal villi height (P<0.05) of diabetic untreated and diabetic treated with OG. It was concluded that Ocimum gratissimum has no effect on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal histomorphometry in diabetic rats however; it has growth promoting properties in normal rats as it facilitates glucose absorption and increase in body weight.

Where applicable, experiments conform with Society ethical requirements