Proceedings of The Physiological Society

Europhysiology 2018 (London, UK) (2018) Proc Physiol Soc 41, PCA193

Poster Communications

Current insights in the use of platelets as biomaterials in regenerative medicine of skeletal muscle: assimilating the molecular physiology

A. Matsakas1, D. Scully1

1. Hull York Medical School, University of Hull, Hull, United Kingdom.

Platelet-based applications such as platelet-rich plasma and platelet releasate have recently gained unprecedented attention as autologous biomaterials in regenerative medicine across a variety of tissues (1). The rationale behind utilising platelet-based applicationsoriginates in the delivery of numerous cytokines and growth factors from α-granules to the targeted area, which in turn act as cell cycle regulators and promote the healing process across a variety of tissues (2). Due to increasing understanding in cell signalling and growth factor biology, research and clinical attention has been drawn to the use of autologous applications as a novel means of delivering growth factors to injured tissue such as liver, bone and skeletal muscle. However, at present, there is inevitably a large discrepancy in the effectiveness of platelet-based applications in regenerative medicine, especially between human and experimental animal studies (3). Therefore, we aim here to critically discuss and assimilate current experimental evidence on the role of platelets as biomaterials in tissue regeneration, particularly in skeletal muscle, by integrating findings from human, animal and cell studies. This presentation is composed of three parts: firstly, we review key aspects of platelet biology that precede the preparation and use of platelet-related applications for tissue regeneration. Secondly, we critically discuss relevant evidence on platelet-mediated regeneration in skeletal muscle focusing on findings from a) clinical trials, b) experimental animal studies and c) cell culture studies; and thirdly, we discuss the application of platelets in the regeneration of several other tissues including tendon, bone, liver, vessels and nerve. Importantly, we identify key technical variations in platelet preparation that may account for the large discrepancy in outcomes from different studies and we make suggestions on how to standardise them. Finally, we aim to assimilate novel insights in the molecular mechanisms linking platelet biology to stem cell regulation and tissue regeneration and provide an up-to-date discussion for physiologists as well as biomedical and clinical scientists involved in platelet-mediated regenerative applications. The current consensus with the use of platelet-rich plasma and especially modified plasma (where individual factors are depleted) in skeletal muscle regeneration remains promising. Most importantly, the molecular mechanisms linking platelet biology to skeletal muscle regeneration, have just begun to unravel and are expected to transform our understanding in using platelets as a biomaterial for tissue healing.

Where applicable, experiments conform with Society ethical requirements